Wind farms work in compliance with the legislative frameworks that depend on the coastal state in whose waters they are installed. All states apply regulation to activities on their EEZ within national and international law. Regulation is divided into two categories – land based legislation and marine legislation. The first one applies to offshore structures temporarily or permanently fixed to the continental shelf. The second one is implemented into national regulations.
International Marine Organization developed many codes which provide equivalent arrangements for convention vessels of special design, construction or service. Please find below the most important acting codes:
- International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code)
- Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU Code)
- Code of Safety for Special Purpose Ships (SPS Code)
- Guidelines for the design and construction of Offshore Supply Vessels (OSV Guidelines)
- Code of Safe Practice for the Carriage of Cargoes and Persons by Offshore Supply Vessels (OSV Code)
- Recommendations for the Training and Certification of Personnel on Mobile Offshore Units (Recommendations for MOU training)
Another legislative framework relevant to the offshore wind industry is coastal state offshore regulations that are not governed by the international law but may be influenced by regional agreements of harmonization of industry practices. The competent authorities are responsible for licensing and consent of activities in the EEZ.
Danish Maritime Authority is responsible for Flag State and Port State inspections as well as for wind farm site installations.
Energistyrelsen or Danish Energy Agency is a competent authority for Coastal State inspections and wind farm site installations.
Arbejdstilsynet or Danish Working Environment Authority is responsible for safety regulation.
Maritime and Coastguard Agency is responsible for Flag State and Port State regulation.
The Department for Energy & Climate Change (DECC) is responsible for Coastal State regulation.
Marine Management Organization (MMO) has some responsibilities in the area of Coastal State regulation in England and Wales.
Scottish Government is responsible for Scottish offshore projects.
Health and Safety Executive is a statutory body responsible for safety regulation in England, Scotland and Wales.
Berufsgenossenschaft für Transport und Verkehrswirtschaft or Professional Association for Transport and Transport Economics is a competent authority for Flag State, Port State and safety regulation.
Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie or Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency is responsible for Coastal State and safety regulation.
Wasserstraßen und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes or Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration is responsible for Coastal State regulation.
Netherlands Shipping Inspectorate is a competent authority for Flag State and Port State regulation.
Rijkswaterstaat or Directorate General for Public Works and Water Management is responsible for Coastal State regulation.
Staatstoezicht op Minen or State Supervision of Mines is responsible for safety regulation.